Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a disorder that appears for the first time in the latest edition of the DSM. This disorder can be diagnosed in minors up to the age of eighteen. It is a disorder characterized by persistent irritability that leads to frequent outbursts of anger and aggression (at least three times a week). Characterizing element of the disorder is related to the feelings of irritability that persist between one anger crisis and another. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder requires an onset between the ages of 6 and 10 in order to be diagnosed.
Major depression, also called endogenous depression, is a depression that cannot be directly linked to particular events (bereavement, loss, stressful situations).
The main symptoms of major depression concerned the mood, the vital drive, thoughts and the ability to concentrate. Specifically, major depression is characterized by these symptoms:
- depressed mood for most of the day
- marked disinterest or pleasure in normal activities
- significant weight loss or changes in appetite (significant increase or decrease)
- persistent insomnia or hypersomnia
- psychomotor agitation or slowing of motor skills
- feeling of fatigue or loss of energy
- low self-esteem or excessive guilt
- decreased attention and concentration skills
- recurring thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts
More than depression, we should talk about “depressions”, as in the DSM-5 we find several syndromes within the chapter on depressive disorders. When it comes to a depressive disorder, it is important to emphasize that not all changes in mood are to be considered pathological.
Everyone happens to experience, in some moments of their life, feelings such as sadness, discouragement, pessimism. Being sad is normal and part of life. But in a healthy person, these sensations are short-lived.
Persistent Depressive Disorder
Persistent depressive disorder, formerly called “dysthymia” or “dysthymic disorder” is a disorder characterized by a chronic depressed mood, which occurs almost every day, for at least two years.
There may be periods in which the mood is “normal” but tend to last only a few days or a few weeks.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Premenstrule dysphoric disorder. After years of debate within the international scientific community, this new disorder has been included in the DSM-5. This disorder is diagnosed when at least 5 of the following symptoms are present in most pre-menstrual phases:
- marked emotional lability (deep fluctuations in mood)
- irritability or anger or increased interpersonal conflict
- noticeably low mood, feelings of hopelessness and self-critical thoughts
- marked anxiety, tension or a feeling of nerves on the edge of the skin
- reduction of interest in normal activities
- difficulty concentrating
- sense of fatigue and loss of energy
- changes in appetite
- sense of loss of control of one’s life
- physical symptoms such as breast soreness, joint or muscle pain, bloating and weight gain
Among the mood disorders, in addition to depressive disorders, we find bipolar disorders. Unlike depressive disorders, which are characterized by only one polarity, (ie mood disorder occurs only with the depressive variant), in bipolar disorders we observe the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes alternating with depressive episodes.