A large part of us have had and may have had an anxiety disorder in our lifetime.
anxiety itself is a natural and universal emotion; is generated by a psychological mechanism of response to stress, which performs the function of anticipating the perception of a possible danger even before the latter has clearly occurred, setting in motion specific physiological responses that push on the one hand to exploration to identify danger and face it in the most appropriate way and, on the other hand, avoidance and eventual escape, as well as in a series of neurovegetative phenomena such as increased breathing rate, heartbeat (tachycardia), sweating, dizziness etc. these phenomena depend on the fact that, assuming that it is in a situation of real danger, the organism needs the maximum muscular energy available, to be able to escape or attack as effectively as possible, avoiding danger and guaranteeing survival.
Phobia is a marked and persistent fear with peculiar characteristics:
it is disproportionate to the real danger of the object or situations;
it cannot be controlled with rational explanations, demonstrations and reasoning;
it exceeds the capacity of voluntary control that the subject is able to implement;
produces the systemic avoidance of the feared stimulus situation:
persists for a prolonged period of time without resolving or subsiding;
involves a certain degree of maladjustment for the data subject;
the individual recognizes that the fear is unreasonable and that it is not due to the actual dangerousness of the object, activity or situation feared.
Tachycardia, sudden sweating, tremor, choking sensation, chest pain, nausea, fear of dying or going crazy, chills or hot flashes are just some of the symptoms that characterize a panic attack.
those who have tried it describe it as a terrible experience, often sudden and unexpected, at least the first time, it is obvious that the fear of a new attack immediately becomes strong and dominant.
the single episode, so it easily leads to a real panic disorder, more for the “fear of fear” than anything else.
the person quickly finds himself embroiled in a tremendous vicious circle that often brings with it agoraphobia, or the anxiety about being in places or situations from which it would be difficult or embarrassing to get away, or where help may not be available in the event of an unexpected panic attack.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
An essential feature of this disorder are recurrent thoughts, images, or impulses that create alarm or fear and that force the person to perform repetitive behaviors or mental actions. the disorder is characterized by obsessions and compulsions. at least 80% of patients with this disorder have both obsessions and compulsions. obsessions are thoughts, images or impulses that arise over and over and are beyond the control of those who experience them. such ideas are felt to be disturbing and intrusive, and, at least when people are not overwhelmed by anxiety, they are judged to be groundless and senseless. Furthermore, these people may worry excessively about dirt and germs, they may be terrified of having inadvertently hurt someone, of losing self-control and becoming aggressive in certain situations, of contracting infectious diseases or of being homosexual even if they recognize that this is unrealistic. obsessions are accompanied by unpleasant emotions, such as fear, disgust, discomfort, doubt, or the feeling of not having done things right, and the countless efforts to counteract are unsuccessful, if not momentary.
Social phobia is a widespread disorder among the population, according to some studies the percentage of people who suffer from it ranges from 3% to 13%, and it seems that women suffer from it more than men.
the main characteristic of this disorder is the fear of acting in an embarrassing or humiliating way in front of others and of receiving negative judgments. This fear can lead sufferers to avoid most social situations, for fear of behaving in the “wrong way” and being misjudged.
usually the most feared situations are those that involve the need to do something in front of other people, such as exposing a report or even just signing, calling or eating; sometimes it can create anxiety simply to enter a room where there are people already seated, or to talk to a friend of yours.
Somatic symptoms such as sweating, flushing, heart pounding, nausea, diarrhea, feeling cold, sticky hands, dry mouth, lump in the throat, shallow breathing, pollakiuria (increased urine frequency) are also common. All these somatic manifestations reflect the hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system. Pulse rate and respiration can also be elevated. Skeletal muscle disorders are sometimes complained of: muscle tension and pain, especially in the nape and shoulder area; tics in the eyelids and other parts of the body; tremors; easy fatigue and inability to relax.